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Thursday, October 29, 2009

Basics of Broadband Internet

Involving high-speed broadband Internet using a modem. This allows you to access information on the Internet very quickly, so often referred to as a high-speed Internet. Broadband Internet can be in the form of DSL, cable, or satellite. As the popularity of the Internet exploded in the early 2000's, Broadband Internet emerged, offering computer users a better thing. It's quite expensive at first, but has become more affordable. Today is a feature throughout the world.

If you are still using dial-up internet connection then you may be wondering what all the hype is about. However, it does not make you connect to the internet, too! Most people switch their home for Broadband Internet Service after experiencing the difference between the two while accessing the Internet on their office computers. You can go to a public library is also to try a computer with Broadband Internet for several hours, and then decide which one you prefer.

DSL is the most common type of Broadband Internet connections. DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. This allows a high volume of data to be sent quickly. Some rural areas have to offer cable Broadband connection. One downside of it is that all customers share a certain bandwidth, so you can find your Broadband Internet functions slowly at times. Cable companies try to avoid this by adding additional connections as the number of subscribers increases. A satellite Broadband connection works the same way.

Broadband Internet has become very popular because it offers so many advantages over dial-up Internet access. It's up to 10 times faster. This means you can access information on the Internet almost instant you click on it. Because not operate on your phone line, you can still receive phone calls while connected to the internet. This also means you will not be interrupted in the middle of something or not will be online during peak hours.

Many people choose to watch movies and videos on the internet. After Broadband Internet allows you to download them or see them quickly like that does not take long for their support. Listening and downloading music is another popular feature on the Internet that works best with Broadband Internet services.

Internet broadband can be purchased from various providers. This has become a popular feature Internet service providers and cable providers. This is a great opportunity for you to get cable service package agreement and Broadband Internet. You'll save money over having them in the two providers. Broadband Internet is more expensive than dial-up Internet service, but well worth the speed that you get to access the Internet./ Source :

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Wednesday, October 28, 2009

The Work Of Wireless Internet

The advantage of wireless internet

Wireless internet has many advantages both for business and residential users. Provide broadband-speed wireless Internet is very good. Today, at over 2 Mbps for commercial use (megabytes per second) obtained using the wireless Internet.

Previously up to 1 Mbps speeds are acceptable for wireless internet, but with content providers who provide speed at 8 Kbps and up to business and residential customers through cable (fiber optic), wireless internet expectations running too high. This could mean only one thing-speed wireless internet sooner or later it will catch up with the speed offered through fiber optic cable.

Wireless Internet is more reliable than the Internet through a cable or satellite. Initial cost to the service provider will also be reduced because they do not have to spend paying expensive cable or satellite transmissions are for. All that is needed is to establish internet tower (very similar to the cellular tower). Users will be connected to the internet for his laptop / device is receiving signals from the nearest tower (once again, very similar to using a mobile phone).

Comparison between the cellular networks work and the wireless Internet network can be made to a certain extent, but working from a wireless Internet network is much more complex in nature. So, how wireless Internet works?

How WiMAX works
We can single out WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) technology is widely used for setting up wireless internet. High speed can be achieved through a wireless network using this technology. Based on the IEEE 802.16 communications standard, this technology fast replacing complicated if cable and satellite networks expensive.

WiMax network consisting of base stations (similar to cellular tower) is set by the service provider, and a receiver antenna (similar to mobile phone antenna) at the user end. Users pay for the service provider wireless internet access, just as they would for a normal internet connection via cable networks. The service provider will provide end users with software, a login and password. Most manufacturers today complements the high-end laptop models with built in antenna is bundled with the software needed to be WiMax compatible units. Internet service providers semaphore from the base station. Antenna at the user end to catch the signal, which provides for uninterrupted internet signal is available. With a laptop equipped with an antenna you can connect to the Internet wherever a signal is available from the base station. As with cellular phone signals from nearby towers from certain service providers, as well as a new generation of WiMax services. One WiMAX base station can send signals over distances several miles depending on terrain. The flatter the terrain, more coverage. Once you move from one base station to another, the recipient will connect your laptop to another base station (from the same service provider) with a stronger signal. For WiMAX service providers to spread their operations, everyone will connect with truly high speed internet 24x7 wherever they are.

Another common use of wireless internet
Wireless Internet is not limited to WiMax. Most of us have used a wireless internet some time or another. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is one example. When a mobile user subscribed to a GPRS service, the recipient mobile unit can receive voice and data signals. Simply put, mobile phones can be used as a phone for voice calls and also as a modem to connect to a computer to surf the internet. The only limiting factor here is a very slow pace. This technology was gradually replaced by EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) technology. EDGE is an enhancement over GPRS, able to provide greater capacity for voice traffic and at the same time have a high speed data transfer capabilities.

EDGE technology has recently been replaced by 3G (Third Generation) technology. Speeds of 2Mbps is achieved by using 3G technology. This speed will continue to increase with technological advances. 4G (Fourth Generation) will be the next major change in this domain. 4G research is being done, but nothing that has not been allocated frequencies for this technology. It is estimated that 4G will be around 2010-2012, but with the speed of technological advance, it could happen earlier.

Mobile phones that have passed the stage where they used to just make and receive calls. Now people can buy a mobile phone to do almost anything that your personal computer or laptop can be. The operating system can be loaded into the phone, almost making them a tool for all your phone and computing needs. This is where the wireless Internet will play an important role in the future. This will connect you 24x7 with almost no damage.

Cable still be used for the Internet to wireless internet time to adjust the speed of data transfer cable. Once this happens, technologies such as WiMax and 3G will help in making this world a 24x7 connected, wire-free world./source :

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009


Internet bandwidth (the speed at which your computer can send and receive information) is measured in either Kbps (kilobits per second) or Mbps (megabits per second). If you are lucky enough to have multiple broadband options in your area, compare these factors:

Downstream bandwidth. This is the speed with which your computer can receive information from the Internet. The higher the downstream bandwidth, the faster your computer can display Web pages, transfer music, and download files. For most people, downstream bandwidth is more important than upstream bandwidth, so the speeds tend to be much higher. For example, a cable modem service might offer 6,000 Kbps downstream and only 768 Kbps upstream.

Upstream bandwidth. This is the amount of data your computer can send to the Internet. This isn't important if you just plan to read e-mail and surf the Web, because your computer only needs to send a small request in order to receive a large Web page or e-mail. However, if you're into online gaming or you want to send large files to people, then higher upstream bandwidth is important, and you should choose the highest upstream bandwidth available.

Reliability and customer service. ISP reliability has increased significantly in recent years; however, it is still not as reliable as your phone or television service. There is no objective way to measure reliability and customer service, so you should talk to your neighbors about their experiences and search the Web for reviews of ISPs in your area.
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Tuesday, October 20, 2009

Internet service provider (ISP)

The first step in connecting to the Internet is to find an Internet service provider (ISP). The most important services an ISP offers are:

Internet access. Access any Web site, send instant messages to your friends, play online games, or use any other Internet service.
E-mail. You can access your e-mail with Microsoft Outlook Express or your Web browser. Most ISPs offer multiple e-mail addresses, so everyone in your family can have an account. ISPs typically provide spam filtering that reduces, but does not eliminate, unwanted messages.

Depending on your location, you might have several different choices for Internet access. Starting with the most attractive technologies for home Internet access, common Internet connection types are:

Cable modems. The best performing and most affordable option available to customers, most cable TV providers offer broadband Internet access.
DSL. An excellent choice for businesses, DSL typically offers better reliability than cable modems. However, DSL tends to be more expensive than cable modems for similar levels of service.
Dial-up. The slowest method of connecting to the Internet, dial-up enables you to connect to the Internet using your existing phone lines. Dial-up is convenient because it is available to any location with a phone. However, slow performance makes using the Internet frustrating.
Satellite. Satellite broadband services provide high-speed Internet access to any location with a clear view of the sky (currently available in North America and certain other locations). Satellite services may be the only broadband option for people living in rural areas. The cost of satellite services is significantly higher than other services. While you can transfer large files quickly with satellite, browsing the Web or playing online games can seem slower than with dial-up because of the delay caused by sending signals to and from satellites.

Additionally, ISPs are beginning to offer wireless or fiber broadband Internet access in limited areas.

To find an ISP, you should contact your cable television provider for cable modem service or your telephone company for DSL. Almost all cable and telephone companies offer broadband Internet access, and they typically offer a discount if you purchase multiple services from them.

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Saturday, October 3, 2009

Common physical components of a network

There are 4 major categories of physical components in a computer network:
1. PCs
2. Interconnections: they consist of components
that provide means for data to travel
from one point to another point in the network, this category includes components
such as the following:

1. NICs: (Network Interface Cards), translates the data produced by the computer
into a format that can be transmitted over the local network (digital to
2. Network media: such as cables or wireless media, that provide the means by
which the signals are transmitted from one network device to another.
3. Connectors: provide the connection points for the media, i.e RJ-45
3. Switches: devices that provide network attachments to the end systems and
intelligent switching of the data within the local network.
4. Routers: interconnects networks and chooses the best path between networks for data
to go through.
Source :

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Friday, October 2, 2009

Logical Topologies

The Logical topology defines how the systems communicate across the physical topologies. In CISSP terms, you may hear logical topology referred to as the LAN media access method or network access method. There are two main types of logical topologies:

shared media topology
token-based topology

Shared Media

In a shared media topology, all the systems have the ability to access the physical layout whenever they need it. The main advantage in a shared media topology is that the systems have unrestricted access to the physical media. Of course, the main disadvantage to this topology is collisions. If two systems send information out on the wire at the same time, the packets collide and kill both packets. Ethernet is an example of a shared media topology.

To help avoid the collision problem, Ethernet uses a protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). In this protocol, each system monitors the wire, listening for traffic. If traffic is detected, the system waits until it hears no traffic before it sends packets out. If a situation occurs where two systems send out packets at the same time and a collision occurs, each system waits for a period of time before it retries. This time period is different for each system, so that the collision does not occur again.

For small networks, the shared media topology works fine; however, as you begin to add more systems to the network, there is a greater opportunity for collisions. To help reduce the number of collisions, many networks are broken up into several smaller networks with the use of switches or hubs, and each network is then referred to as its own collision domain.

Shared media networks are typically deployed in a bus, star, or hybrid physical topology.

Token Based

The token-based topology works by using a token to provide access to the physical media. In a token-based network, there is a token that travels around the network. When a system needs to send out packets, it grabs the token off of the wire, attaches it to the packets that are sent, and sends it back out on the wire. As the token travels around the network, each system examines the token. When the packets arrive at the destination systems, those systems copy the information off of the wire and the token continues its journey until it gets back to the sender. When the sender receives the token back, it pulls the token off of the wire and sends out a new empty token to be used by the next machine.

Token-based networks do not have the same collision problems that Ethernet-based networks do because of the need to have possession of the token to communicate. However, one problem that does occur with token-based networks is latency. Because each machine has to wait until it can use the token, there is often a delay in when communications actually occur.

Token-based network are typically configured in physical ring topology because the token needs to be delivered back to the originating machine for it to release. The ring topology best facilitates this requirement.

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Thursday, October 1, 2009


The mesh topology is the last topology we discuss. In this layout, every system is connected to every other system. The main advantage of this topology is high availability. The main disadvantage of this topology is cost, both administrative and physical. Because each system is connected to each other, the amount of cabling and maintenance necessary can be prohibitive, especially in larger networks. The formula for determining the amount of cable needed in a mesh network is:

(N x (N - 1))/2, where N is the number of systems to be interconnected

In our example in Figure 5, we have six systems that require 15 cables to create a mesh network. This topology is mainly used in Wide Area Network environments or in environments where high availability outweighs the costs associated with this amount of interconnection.

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